Causes and symptoms of Diabetes (Types 1&2)

cr_01_240x240_july9What causes diabetes type 1 and type 2?

Diabetes may arise because the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin, are destroyed by an autoimmune disorder, giving rise to type I diabetes. Alternatively, the body cells may not respond to insulin that is being made at the proper levels (insulin resistance) resulting in type 2 diabetes, often as a result of obesity, and deficient insulin secretion.

Insulin use not only prevents hyperglycemic emergencies, but also is the best safeguard to prevent the long-term complications of diabetes by correcting fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia.

You may also like reading: Types of Diabetes in India

 

  Diabetes type 1 Diabetes type 2
Cause Beta cells in pancreas are being attacked by body’s own cells and therefore cannot produce insulin to take sugar out of the blood stream. Insulin is not produced. Diet related insulin release is so large and frequent that receptor cells have become less sensitive to the insulin. This insulin resistance results in less sugar being removed from the blood.
Genetic basis Possibly. In most cases of type 1 diabetes, the patient would need to inherit risk factors from both parents. Type 2 diabetes has a stronger link to family history and lineage than type 1.
Bodily effects Thought to be triggered by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells. Autoimmune attack may occur following a viral infection such as mumps, rubella cytomegalovirus. Appears to be related to aging, inactive lifestyle, genetic influence and obesity.
Climate One trigger might be related to cold weather. Type 1 diabetes develops more often in winter than summer and is more common in places with cold climates.
Diet Early diet may also play a role. Type 1 diabetes is less common in people who were breastfed and in those who first ate solid foods at later ages. Obesity tends to run in families, and families tend to have energy dense junk food leading to obesity and then diabetes.

 

Signs and symptoms of diabetes type 1 and type 2

There are numerous medical consequences of persistently high levels of blood glucose. The most serious involve kidney failure, eye problems (blindness) and increased risk of cardiovascular problems (e.g., heart attacks and stroke).

 

  Diabetes type 1 Diabetes type 2
Warning Signs
  • Very thirsty
  • Urinating frequently
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Feeling very hungry
  • Feeling extreme weakness and fatigue
  • Nausea, vomiting, irritability.
  • Very thirsty
  • Urinating frequently
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Feeling very hungry
  • Feeling extreme weakness and fatigue
  • Nausea, vomiting, irritability
  • Blurred vision
  • Excessive itching
  • Skin infections
  • Sores that heal slowly
  • Dry, itchy skin
  • Pins and needles or numbness in feet.
Common physical attributes found

   Mostly normal or thin

  Mostly overweight or obese
Onset Rapid (weeks) – often present acutely with ketoacidosis.   Slow (years)
Complications
  • Diabetic coma or ketoacidosis (from high blood sugar)
  • High blood pressure
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
  • Nephropathy
  • Blindness
  • Heart attack
  • Kidney disease
  • Stroke
  • Neuropathy
  • Amputation.
  • Diabetic coma or ketoacidosis (from high blood sugar)
  • High blood pressure
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
  • Nephropathy
  • Blindness
  • Heart attack
  • Kidney disease
  • Stroke
  • Neuropathy
  • Amputation

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Dr. Rajiv Kovil
Consultant Diabetologist,
Dr. Kovil’s Diabetes Care Centre

Dr. Rajiv Kovil is a Consultant Diabetologist at Dr. Kovil’s Diabetes Care Centre, the first Preventive Diabetes Centre & Diabetic Foot Clinic in Mumbai, KLS Memorial Hospital and Holy Spirit Hospital among others. He is a founder member of United Diabetes Forum, a forum of practising diabetologists in India. He has also written various articles on diabetes for medical journals such as Asian Journal of Diabetology and Medical Image.

His Preventive Diabetes Centre & Diabetic Foot Clinic is an initiative to provide preventive diabetic measures as well as to function as a specialized Foot Clinic for diabetic patients not only in terms of equipment but more importantly in terms of expertise.

Image: Getty Images

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